Posts by thegreathelp

Dyslexia In calculation

Posted by on Sep 13, 2015 in problems | 0 comments

Mirror-writing of numbers.

Inversion of figures in numbers consisting of two or more figures. Example: 24 and 42.

Problems increase when it comes to hundreds or thousands, such as 104 and 140.

Mistaking numbers that sound similar. Example: 30 and 40.

Difficulty in creating series of numbers, both in ascending and descending order.

Tendency to start math operations from the left.

Difficulty in solving problems, when this involves verbal comprehension.

  1. Children over 12 years of age (Secondary school)

The child has problems focusing when reading or writing.

Shows primary memory problems, not being able to remember what he read, due to his difficulty in understanding read and written text, as well as mathematical concepts.

Interprets information in the wrong way, as he is unable to comprehend abstract information and also due to his poor reading skills.

Shows difficulty in organizing his space, his working materials and also his own thoughts when reading or writing.

Cannot manage his time, and has no strategies to finish his tasks on time.

Works slowly and cannot adapt to new environments.

His social abilities don’t function properly, and he doesn’t manage to make friends or understand conversations.

Finally, he avoids reading, writing and doing math, and gets into an emotional block.

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Characteristics of a Dyslexic Child (part two)

Posted by on Sep 13, 2015 in language | 0 comments

2.2 In oral language

The child overcomes dyslalia (a disorder in the articulation of phonemes. It refers to the inability to pronounce certain phonemes or groups of phonemes correctly. The language of a child with a serious form of dyslalia can be incomprehensible.) and the omissions characteristic to the pre-school stage. However, his verbal expression is still poor, and he has difficulties in learning new words, especially if they are phonetically complex.

2.3 In reading

His reading is full of mistakes uncharacteristic for this age.

In letters: There can appear confusions, generally between letters that are somewhat similar from a morphological and phonetic point of view, such as handwritten ‘a’ and ‘o’, printed ‘a’ and ‘e’, pronounced ‘o’ and ‘u’. These confusions also include letters whose shape is similar, differing only in respect to their position towards a certain line of symmetry, like d/b, u/n, p/q, g/p, b/g, d/p. There can also occur omissions of certain letters, mainly at the end of each word and in compound syllables.

In syllables: Inversions, changing the order of letters within a direct (CV) or reverse (VC) syllable and changing the order of syllables within a word is still common.

In words: The child makes omissions, repetitions and/or substitutions of a word for another that starts with the same syllable or that sounds similar, like in ‘accept’ and ‘except’.

Lack of rhythm in reading (reads excessively and notoriously slow).

Absence of punctuation marks in reading and writing.

Skipping or repeating lines.

Mechanical, not comprehensive, reading.

2.4. In writing

Mirror writing, one letter at a time.

Numbers and letters well-written, but drawn with basic, twisted lines or individual, loose strokes. (Direction/ Address)

Mistaking letters that are similar in shape or sound (just like in reading).

Omission of letters, syllables or whole words.

Mixing uppercase and lowercase letters.

Inverting letters, syllables and words, although this happens most often in reverse or closed syllables.

Repeating letters, syllables or words.

Difficulty in correctly separating the elements of a sentence. Example: `The moth erof myf riend.’

Unclear writing, as he writes some letters a little differently.

Lack of hand coordination.

Inadequate position of the child, as well as of the sheet of paper.

Inappropriate muscle tonicity, caused by insufficient of excessive pressure.


Writing fatigue, as a result of the pressure put by the inadequate position.

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General characteristics of a child with dyslexia

Posted by on Sep 13, 2015 in General | 0 comments

Swaps the positions of letters, numbers and words.

Confuses the order of the letters within words.

Finds it difficult to make the connection between letters and sounds, and to decipher learned words.

Shows difficulty in pronouncing words, as he inverts or substitutes syllables.

Doesn’t know the left from the right, and presents mirror-writing.

Has poor motor coordination, gets confused easily, and is prone to accidents.

Does not hold the pen correctly.

His motor coordination disorder results in poor handwriting and calligraphy.

Cannot follow a series of verbal instructions.

His reading comprehension is very poor, and he remembers information very slowly.

Has problems understanding time, and is unable to tell the hour, day, month or year.

Cannot organize or write his thoughts. Grammar and orthography are characteristic and deficient.

Shows difficulties in learning basic numerical concepts, such as the multiplication table, and cannot apply these concepts in to calculate and solve problems.

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Child Characteristics at educational level

Posted by on Sep 13, 2015 in Helping kids | 0 comments

Depending on the age of the student, dyslexia can present some specific characteristics that, within some wide limits, can be classified in different levels.

At school, dyslexia becomes obvious at basic subjects like reading, writing and calculation.

When they start studying these subjects, many children show some of these disorders that are characteristic to dyslexic children, such as mirror writing, inversions, etc. But these children show only a slight immaturity of the visual and motor functions or of their laterality, and, once the necessary level of maturity is reached, the problem disappears.

Generally, a dyslexic child overcomes the difficulties of a level only to face other difficulties in the next one. However, an adequate intervention will gradually attenuate the burden.

Thus, the most remarkable and outstanding features at each level are:

  1. Children aged 3 to 6 (Pre-school stage)

Slow lexical development and a delay in the development of speaking, with difficulties in spelling or pronouncing words.

Clumsiness in jumping and running.

Difficulty in following instructions and understanding routines.

Lack of attention and an increased activity and impulsivity.

Difficulty in fastening buttons, buckles or zippers. This motor clumsiness results in a little ability to do handwriting and graphic exercises.

Difficulty in memorizing numbers, the alphabet, the days of the week, the colors, shapes, sizes, positions etc.

Lack of control of the pen and scissors.

Occurrence of problematic situations in his social interactions.

During this stage of early childhood education, children are initiated in the phases that precede writing and reading. Occasionally, they can present difficulties that can be mistaken for dyslexia, without the children actually being dyslexic. Their learning difficulties might be related to some maturative aspects. However, we cite them in order to prevent possible difficulties.

The disorders generally occur in the field of oral language.

Dyslalia (difficulties in talking).

Omissions of certain phonemes, especially in compound, closed or vowel-consonant syllables (CCV, CV, VC).

Confusing phonemes, which generally results in unclear speaking.

Inversions of phonemes, as in ‘aminal’ instead of ‘animal’, or of entire syllables within a word, such as ‘cocholate’ instead of ‘chocolate’.

Poor vocabulary and expression, and low verbal comprehension.

Some authors say that the word `dyslexia` should not be used in children younger than seven, thus observing their process of maturation and development. It is acceptable to speak about dyslexic features or symptoms, with the aim of initiating an early psycho-pedagogical treatment and diminish the child’s difficulty.

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Characteristics of a Dyslexic Child

Posted by on Sep 13, 2015 in Child | 0 comments

Dyslexic children present a series of common characteristics that manifest in their way of reacting, their personality and school performances. Even though all children are different and not all of them present all the characteristics, they still have many of them in common.

Dyslexia is a special learning disability, whose symptoms change as the child grows and develops. From as early as the preschool stage, it is possible to notice small details that could make us suspect that a child is dyslexic. Between ages 6 and 11, the symptoms are more obvious, or, at least, better known. From the age of 12, learning disorders become more clear.

For a child to be dyslexic, he doesn’t need to show all the symptoms described below. At the same time, it doesn’t mean he is dyslexic for only showing one of them.

Characteristics at personal level:

Lack of attention. Due to the great intellectual focus he must sustain in order to overcome his characteristic difficulties of perception, the child will present a high level of fatigue, which will result in variable attention. Thus, acquiring literacy will require a great effort on their part if they are not interested and they find no intrinsic motivation that could attract their attention.

Lack of interest for learning. His school grades and general performance are usually low, which causes demotivation and low self-esteem for the student. Some children may be very hard-working, and they still won’t see any result to their efforts. This will often make them become uninterested, work less and eventually fall behind.

Personal maladjustment. Sometimes we find dyslexic students showing features that denote an emotional imbalance; these features include low self-esteem and behavioral problems, even violence.

A feeling of insecurity and obstinacy.

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